This element is very similar to the three-node beam element. Figures 77 and 78 apply (just drop the middle nodes). The B31 and B31R elements are expanded into C3D8I and C3D8R elements, respectively. Since the C3D8R element has only one integration point in the middle of the element, bending effect cannot be taken into account. Therefore,the B31R element should not be used for bending. For more information on beam elements the reader is referred to the next section.